• Is an application software that analysis and storage of data in tabular form.






• Can be used for creating data models, using functions, adding formulae, sort data, filter data, testing data and creating graph charts…etc







• Cells: a cell is a box in which you can enter a single piece of data, is the intersection between a row and a column on a spreadsheet, identified by a letter and number such as A1

• Rows: rows are "horizontal" collections of items belonging to a certain category, identified by numbers.

• Columns: Columns are the vertical lines of data that stretch from the top of the spreadsheet to the bottom , identified by letters.

• Sheets: a combination of rows and columns together can be divided to one page or more.

• Tabs: used to identify the sheet name, which can be renamed, copied, moved and deleted

• Chart: is a graphical representation of data, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a piechart".

the importance of accurate data entry in spreadsheets


• When we enter correct data, so correct results will be obtained.


• How To Help Minimize Errors in Data Entry: by using Validation, verfication.







• Formula: used to perform calculations, begins with equal sign.

• Function: a function is a preset formula, Functions make it easier to carry out, begins with equal sign

• absolute reference: absolute reference remain constant when a formula is copied to anotherr cell.

• relative reference: Relative references change when a formula is copied to another cell.

• Ranges: an number of cells selected together fof later use. • Named cell: cell can be identified by a name for later use

• named range: number of cells (range) can be identified by a name for later use.

• nested formulae/functions: With nested functions one or more functions are placed inside a main function.

Order of operations










Symbol: ( )



Symbol: ^




Symbol: * /




Symbol: - +

Testing data








• Testing data: means checking that the data model formulas and functions are work correctly.


• Test data is the data that is used in tests of a software system. • expected outcome: the supposed results after using a data model.

• actual outcome: the existing and current results after using a data model. • Normal data: acceptable, valid data/data, inside the given range

• Abnormal data: outside the limits of acceptability/validity • Extreme data: at the limits of acceptability/validity

Sample of test plan








Cell reference

Formula tested





Test data



Why chosen



expected outcome



actual outcome


Tested formula works Y/N

Remedial action